Study notes on Western influence and pressure in the history of Cina and The japanese in the 19th and 20th Century
American influence and pressure inside the history of China and Asia in the nineteenth and twentieth Century really should not be dismissed, as they are often the impetus, if certainly not the main power, of crucial internal events. China and Japan's personal situation and internal forces, then, mood how every country responds to these Western pressures and influences. Cina, already underneath the yoke of the Manchurian Jun Hsien rule, wrestled repeatedly with American values. The japanese, on the other hand, maybe more home secure having its wholly native culture, may adapt American methods although preserving Japanese values with less physical violence.
Opium Warfare (1840s, China) 1st real source of pressure.
2. Before this, mutual respect caused zero pressure. Start of period of disrespect. West starts to see China as barbaric.
* Foreign criminals permit off gently. Condescension.
* Top dealers smuggle opium to redress balance of payments. Govts didn't get involved.
* Chinese suppliers in turn recognizes this disrespect as philistine. Sees Feng Chien West as militaristic and superstitious cos of faith (contrast to Jun Hsien)
* Lin Tse Hsu forced to retaliate. In vain.
* Generated bitter bumpy treaties. Forced to open up even more ports pertaining to trade that they didn't require, and had to grant extrality.
* After that, continual Jun Hsien - Fen Roquet value collide. Mutual disrespect.
2. Perry arrives in 1853, just after Opium War.
* Japanese also Fen Roquet.
* Indigenous (no have difficulties of nationalism)
* Anxieties Western control after seeing terrible defeat of China, and wants American respect
5. Inherent tradition of asking for and duplicating in lifestyle
* Permits adapting of Western methods, not necessarily with the values.
Cina: Wrestling between Jun Hsien and Traditional western values serious. All or nothing at all.
Taiping Rebellion (1850s -- 1860s)
5. Hung Hsiu Ch'uan's Christian driving force is definitely 1st key borrowing of ideas for a revolution, and it was the biggest Chinese language revolution in 19th C.
* Wished to transcend Oriental past and set up Christianity in Cina. This new ideology gave them belief in change.
* Effective military services and mobilization cam coming from Western Feng Ch'ien principles.
* Traditional western monotheism instead of Chinese atheism or East pantheism.
* Sense of nationalism, instead of current culturalism pushed by foreign Manchu rulers.
* 1st summary of equality for girls. The Hakkas mobilized ladies than some other rebellion. Females got equal land and could sit for examinations.
* Installed took the Feng Roquet title of King, rather than emperor.
* But with Jun Hsien background although it was declining, couldn't integrate Christianity and revival of decentralized Feng Roquet.
Self Building up Movt (1870s - 1880s)
* Employed Western methods and technology, but fought against their ideals that were appearance in Cina.
* " Enrich the State and improve the military" is Feng Chien, yet only to solve economic problems and to deposit rebels. Nonetheless will not and cannot explore Western ideals.
* This resistance of Feng Chien rejected govt intervention. Their particular policies and this movt consequently failed. (partly)
Reform Movt (1898) K'ang Yu Wei
* High level opposition, with last forget attempt to RESTORE positive Confucianism. Not search for elsewhere.
5. Adopted American Science and tech, active govt in economy.
5. Still simply no transcendent transform. Anti military and luxurious. Still are to Jun Hsien. Empress Dowager afterwards undid reconstructs after initial success.
When ever Jun Hsien was finally rejected, it was total and extreme denouncement. 1st referrals to Chinese suppliers inWestern conditions came from rebel leaders who were educated abroad. Education generally comes with its influential bias.
1911 Trend. Sun Yat Sen.
5. Sun well-informed in Beautiful hawaii and later lived in various countries.
* Radical (maybe a lot of so) suggestions. T'ung Meng Hui Concepts were nationalism, democracy and People's livelihood. Wanted new concept of Republic.
* Military modeled after Western strength, but...